Ficus carica fruits, by-products and based products as potential sources of bioactive compounds: A review

  • Candela Teruel-Andreu /
  • Lucía Andreu-Coll /
  • David López-Lluch /
  • Esther Sendra /
  • Francisca Hernández /
  • Marina Cano-Lamadrid
Journal re
  • Volumen: 11
  • Número: 9
  • Fecha: 01 septiembre 2021
  • ISSN: 20734395
  • Tipo de fuente: Revista
  • DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11091834
  • Tipo de documento: Crítica
  • Editorial: MDPI
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.In this review, studies (n = 41) were searched in which the compounds and contents were determined for whole fig fruit, peel, leaves and pulp, the types of fig-based products were identified and their total phenols and antioxidant capacity as well as the potential uses of different extracts of fig parts were analyzed. There is a need to reduce the fruit¿s environmental impacts (zero waste), and bioactive compounds from fig fruits present a high added value as functional ingredients. Focusing on fig by-products (peel, seeds, no-optimal fruits and leaves), individual compounds and/or extracts can increase the functional, nutritional and techno-functional properties of food products such as additives. A high number of phenolic compounds was found in whole fruit (n = 19), peel (n = 26), pulp (n = 24) and leaves (n = 42). Quercetin-3-O-rutioside was reported as the major individual phenolic compound in whole figs, while cyanidin-3-rutinoside, epicatechin and caftaric acid were the highest compounds in peel, pulp and leaves, respectively. A potential strategy could be the development of novel additives and/or ingredients for food industry from fig by-products. Therefore, the use and valorization of the waste material produced during fig processing should be further investigated.

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