Comparison of traditional and novel drying techniques and its effect on quality of fruits, vegetables and aromatic herbs

  • ángel Calín-Sánchez /
  • Leontina Lipan /
  • Marina Cano-Lamadrid /
  • Abdolreza Kharaghani /
  • Klaudia Masztalerz /
  • ángel A. Carbonell-Barrachina /
  • Adam Figiel
Journal re
  • Volumen: 9
  • Número: 9
  • Fecha: 01 septiembre 2020
  • ISSN: 23048158
  • Tipo de fuente: Revista
  • DOI: 10.3390/foods9091261
  • Tipo de documento: Crítica
  • Editorial: MDPI
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.Drying is known as the best method to preserve fruits, vegetables, and herbs, decreasing not only the raw material volume but also its weight. This results in cheaper transportation and increments the product shelf life, limiting the food waste. Drying involves the application of energy in order to vaporize and mobilize the moisture content within the porous products. During this process, the heat and mass transfer occurs simultaneously. The quality of dehydrated fruits, vegetables, and aromatic herbs is a key problem closely related to the development and optimization of novel drying techniques. This review reports the weaknesses of common drying methods applied for fruits, vegetables, and aromatic herbs and the possible options to improve the quality of dried products using different drying techniques or their combination. The quality parameters under study include color, bulk density, porosity, shrinkage, phytochemicals, antioxidant capacity, sugars, proteins, volatile compounds, and sensory attributes. In general, drying leads to reduction in all studied parameters. However, the behavior of each plant material is different. On the whole, the optimal drying technique is different for each of the materials studied and specific conditions must be recommended after a proper evaluation of the drying protocols. However, a novel or combined technique must assure a high quality of dried products. Furthermore, the term quality must englobe the energy efficiency and the environmental impact leading to production of sustainable dried products.

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