Hydroxycinnamic acids and carotenoids of dried loquat fruit cv. 'Algar' affected by freeze-, convective-, vacuum-microwave- And combined-drying methods

  • David Bernardo López-Lluch /
  • Marina Cano-Lamadrid /
  • Francisca Hernández /
  • Aleksandra Zimmer /
  • Krzysztof Lech /
  • Adam Figiel /
  • ángel Antonio Carbonell-Barrachina /
  • Aneta Wojdyło
Journal ar
  • Volumen: 25
  • Número: 16
  • Fecha: 01 agosto 2020
  • ISSN: 14203049
  • Tipo de fuente: Revista
  • DOI: 10.3390/molecules25163643
  • Tipo de documento: Artículo
  • Editorial: MDPI
© 2020 by the authors.The effect of different drying techniques (freeze, convective, vacuum-microwave and combined drying) on the drying kinetics, the phytochemical compounds and sensory characteristics in loquat cultivar 'Algar' was studied. The convective drying resulted in the highest amount of total hydroxycinnamic acids (5077 mg/kg wet weight (ww)), with 3-caffeoyl quinic acid and 5-caffeoyl quinic acid being the greatest carotenoids. The highest values of total carotenoids were obtained by the freeze-drying technique (2601 mg/kg ww), followed by all convective treatments and vacuum-microwave at 360W. The highest carotenoid was ß-carotene. The ABTS+¿ (2,2¿-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) and FRAP (Ferric Ion Reducing Antioxidant Power) values ranged from 2.04 up to 3.27 mmol Trolox/100 g ww, and from 1.89 up to 2.29 mmol Trolox/100 g ww, respectively. As expected, the color difference of freeze-dried samples was the lowest (7.06), similar to combined drying conditions (9.63), whilst the highest value was found after convective drying (37.0). All treatments were sensory acceptable (no off-flavors). However, still, further research is needed to fully optimize these studied drying treatments because the freeze-dried sample still had higher carotenoid content and better instrumental color parameters. Although recently the impact of microwave drying has been studied, this is the first work comparing phytochemical composition of loquat fruit under the different drying methods mentioned above.

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