Analysis of noise temperature sensitivity for the design of a broadband thermal noise primary standard

Journal ar
  • Volumen: 49
  • Número: 4
  • Fecha: 01 agosto 2012
  • Páginas: 538-551
  • ISSN: 00261394 16817575
  • Tipo de fuente: Revista
  • DOI: 10.1088/0026-1394/49/4/538
  • Tipo de documento: Artículo
A broadband primary standard for thermal noise measurements is presented and its thermal and electromagnetic behaviour is analysed by means of a novel hybrid analytical-numerical simulation methodology. The standard consists of a broadband termination connected to a 3.5mm coaxial airline partially immersed in liquid nitrogen and is designed in order to obtain a low reflectivity and a low uncertainty in the noise temperature. A detailed sensitivity analysis is made in order to highlight the critical characteristics that mostly affect the uncertainty in the noise temperature, and also to determine the manufacturing and operation tolerances for a proper performance in the range 10MHz to 26.5GHz. Aspects such as the thermal bead design, the level of liquid nitrogen or the uncertainties associated with the temperatures, the physical properties of the materials in the standard and the simulation techniques are discussed. © 2012 BIPM & IOP Publishing Ltd.

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