Influence of environmental drivers on allergy to pollen grains in a case study in Spain (Madrid): meteorological factors, pollutants, and airborne concentration of aeroallergens

  • Martha Cabrera /
  • Javier Subiza /
  • Enrique Fernández-Caldas /
  • Belén Garzón García /
  • Stella Moreno-Grau /
  • José Luis Subiza
Journal ar
Environmental Science and Pollution Research
  • Fecha: 01 January 2021
  • ISSN: 16147499 09441344
  • Source Type: Journal
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-14346-y
  • Document Type: Article
  • Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.The aim of this study was to compare airborne levels of Phl p 1 and Phl p 5, with Poaceae pollen concentrations inside and outside of the pollen season, and to evaluate their association with symptoms in grass allergic patients and the influence of climate and pollution. The Hirst and the Burkard Cyclone samplers were used for pollen and allergen quantification, respectively. The sampling period ran from 23 March 2009 to 27 July 2010. Twenty-three patients with seasonal allergic asthma and rhinitis used an electronic symptom card. The aerosol was extracted and quantified for Phl p 1 and Phl p 5 content. Descriptive statistics, non-parametric paired contrast of Wilcoxon, Spearman¿s correlations, and a categorical principal component analysis (CatPCA) were carried out. Significant variations in pollen, aeroallergen levels, pollen allergen potency, and symptoms score were observed in this study. Phl p 5 pollen allergen potency was higher at the beginning of the 2010 grass pollen season. Presence of Phl p 1 outside the pollen season with positive O3 correlation was clinically relevant. 45.5% of the variance was explained by two dimensions in the CatPCA analysis, showing the symptom relationships dissociated in two dimensions. In the first one, the more important relationship was with grass pollen grains concentration and Phl p 5 and to a lesser extent with Phl p 1 and levels of NO2 and O3, and in the second dimension, symptoms were associated with humidity and SO2. Clinically relevant out-season Phl p 1 was found with a positive O3 correlation. The effect of climate and pollution may have contributed to the higher seasonal allergic rhinitis symptom score recorded in 2009.

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