Net-metering and self-consumption analysis for direct PV groundwater pumping in agriculture: A Spanish case study

Journal ar
Applied Sciences (Switzerland)
  • Volumen: 9
  • Número: 8
  • Fecha: 01 April 2019
  • ISSN: 20763417
  • Source Type: Journal
  • DOI: 10.3390/app9081646
  • Document Type: Article
  • Publisher: MDPI
© 2019 by the authors.International policies mainly that are focused on energy-dependence reduction and climate change objectives have been widely proposed by most developed countries over the last years. These actions aim to promote the integration of renewables and the reduction of emissions in all sectors. Among the different sectors, agriculture emerges as a remarkable opportunity to integrate these proposals. Indeed, this sector accounts for 10% of the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the EU, representing 1.5% of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2016. Within the agriculture sector, current solutions for groundwater pumping purposes are mainly based on diesel technologies, leading to a remarkable fossil fuel dependence and emissions that must be reduced to fulfill both energy and environmental requirements. Relevant actions must be proposed that are focused on sustainable strategies and initiatives. Under this scenario, the integration of photovoltaic (PV) power plants into groundwater pumping installations has recently been considered as a suitable solution. However, this approach requires a more extended analysis, including different risks and impacts related to sustainability from the economic and energy points of view, and by considering other relevant aspects such as environmental consequences. In addition, PV solar power systems connected to the grid for groundwater pumping purposes provide a relevant opportunity to optimize the power supplied by these installations in terms of self-consumption and net-metering advantages. Actually, the excess PV power might be injected to the grid, with potential profits and benefits for the agriculture sector. Under this scenario, the present paper gives a multidimensional analysis of PV solar power systems connected to the grid for groundwater pumping solutions, including net-metering conditions and benefit estimations that are focused on a Spanish case study. Extensive results based on a real aquifer (Aquifer 23) located in Castilla La Mancha (Spain) are included and discussed in detail.

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