A synchrotron x-ray diffraction and hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of Zn negative electrodes at different charge and discharge states of Zn/MnO<inf>2</inf>batteries using an ionic liquid-based gel polymer electrolyte

Journal ar
Journal of Power Sources
  • Volumen: 363
  • Fecha: 01 January 2017
  • Páginas: 199-208
  • ISSN: 03787753
  • Source Type: Journal
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.07.082
  • Document Type: Article
  • Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
© 2017 Elsevier B.V. Zn/MnO2 batteries including an ionic liquid-based gel polymer electrolyte (IL-GPE) have been discharged or discharged and then recharged reaching different states of charge. The Zn electrodes used in these Zn/MnO2 batteries are studied by HAXPES and synchrotron XRD techniques. Besides, HAXPES measurements are compared with the results obtained by a conventional XPS. Formation of Zn(OH)2 and ZnO is found in intermediate states of charge during charging and discharging. However, only ZnO is observed in the anode when a full discharging was carried out. Conversely, an entire charging process produces a complete reduction of all Zn2+ species to metallic Zn. In addition, various techniques have confirmed the entrance of Triflate anions and NMP solvent molecules in the electrode, accompanying the Zn2+ cations movement during the charging.

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