Radio-Channel Characterization of Smart Grid Substations in the 2.4-GHz ISM Band
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
- Volumen: 16
- Número: 2
- Fecha: 01 February 2017
- Páginas: 1294-1307
- ISSN: 15361276
- Source Type: Journal
- DOI: 10.1109/TWC.2016.2644610
- Document Type: Article
- Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
© 2016 IEEE. The smart grid (SG) represents the present and the future of electric power grids. Wireless networks (WNs) are a key technology for this updating process, empowering electric networks to be easily managed in a flexible and cost-effective way. However, as with any wireless technology and especially in a harsh multipath environment such as the SG, reckoning with an extensive channel characterization is crucial. This paper presents an exhaustive characterization of two representative scenarios, both in the transport and distribution segment of an SG: a 400-kV outdoor substation and a main power room. The 2.4-GHz ISM band-in which most wireless communication technologies applied to SG operate-is examined in depth to characterize the radio-propagation phenomena. Large and small-scale fading, RMS delay, coherence bandwidth, and electromagnetic interferences are studied under different line-of-sight, polarizations, and frequency conditions to derive empirical models allowing to estimate the aforementioned parameters in other SGs of a similar nature. Finally, to further evaluate and compare our channel characterization, a WN was simulated in a substation to examine the channel modeling impact on its suitable design and operation.