Optimization of fragrance extraction: Daytime and flower age affect scent emission in simple and double narcissi

Journal ar
Industrial Crops and Products
  • Volumen: 52
  • Fecha: 01 January 2014
  • Páginas: 671-678
  • ISSN: 09266690
  • Source Type: Journal
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2013.11.034
  • Document Type: Article
The fragrance of Narcissus flowers is used for luxury perfumes because of its delicate odor. Fragrance productivity is relatively low and an increase in fragrance yield is therefore an important issue. This study investigated the development of scent emission and scent profile of narcissus cultivars of simple and double flower architecture. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were applied to analyze flower scent in dependence of daytime and flower age. The major scent compounds identified were those typical for Narcissus species, monoterpenes and benzenoids, here in form of cis-ß-ocimene and benzyl acetate. The double flower cultivar, with 11 major compounds had a more complex scent profile than the simple flower cultivar with 6 major volatiles. Both cultivars showed circadian emission patterns and produced significantly less scent during the night than during the day with a reduction of 40% in double flowers and 37% in single flowers. Four-day old flowers produced 37% and 59% less volatiles in double and simple flowers compared to freshly cut flowers. Volatile composition varied among cultivars, daytime and flower age, however benzyl acetate and cis-ß-ocimene continuously formed the major compounds. Compound flowers with doubled perianth structures produced double amount of scent compared to simple flowers independent of daytime. The drastic differences in volatile production depending on daytime, flower age and flower architecture should be taken into account when using narcissus flowers for the production of absolute fragrance extracts. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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